1.81 The agreement. The UN Convention on the Application of the Provisions of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea of 10 December 1982 on the conservation and management of straddling fish stocks and large migratory fish stocks, commonly known as UN fish stocks (UNFA), provides a framework for international cooperation in the conservation and management of these stocks. The convention has yielded concrete results. Emissions of fine particulate matter and sulphur have decreased by 30-80% in Europe and by 30-40% in North America since 1990. In Europe, these measures have increased life expectancy by one year. Nitrogen oxide emissions have also been halved and lead exposure in the countries of the UN Economic Commission for Europe (UN-EEC) has been reduced by almost 80% between 1990 and 2012. 1.76 The various information we examined do not provide sufficient guidance on the state of marine oil pollution. Transport Canada has also sought to gather information from the various marine pollution prevention programs, but has provided only limited evidence that it has analyzed the problem, assessed the effectiveness of existing prevention and surveillance programs, or clearly defined the expected environmental outcomes of these programs. 1.1 International environmental agreements reflect important government policies on major environmental issues and Canadians should know what has been achieved and what has not been achieved through these agreements. We reviewed five international environmental agreements to determine whether the relevant federal departments know to what extent the concrete objectives of the agreements are being achieved.
We found that services were informed to varying degrees of their ability to achieve the environmental objectives and outcomes of their respective agreements. 1.24 The department`s performance reports must also strive to be concise and well understood by Canadians. Because they are not intended to be complete or provide comprehensive information on everything a federal department does. Competing priorities often make it more difficult to report on all outstanding programs and initiatives. As a result, there is no indication that responsible departments will use departmental performance reports to report on the results of international environmental agreements. Nevertheless, the Treasury Board of the Secretariat of Canada encourages departments to channel readers to other publications or websites, using their service reports, where they can find more complete performance information. In addition, we interviewed officials from the Privy Council Office, Treasury Secretariat and Foreign Affairs Canada to identify and better understand the key government processes and mechanisms available to ensure accountability for results as soon as the agreements are in place. As a result of these adverse effects on human health and the environment, limits and baselines for air pollution have been established to monitor the activities of authorities and the operator in reducing emissions and improving air quality. 1.128 We also asked responsible services to identify any significant operational constraints that affect the achievement of agreements` expectations or performance targets. We also asked them to identify all corrective measures necessary to ensure that the environmental expectations or objectives of their agreements were met.