Collective bargaining or collective bargaining involves negotiations in which a trade union representing workers and an employers` organisation representing employers in a given sector negotiate minimum conditions of employment in the sector, such as for example. B the level of wages and working time. A union can also negotiate with a single company. Negotiations result in a collective agreement concluded for a given period of time, called a collective agreement period. The conclusion of collective agreements is governed by the Collective Agreements Act (436/1946). Other labour laws, such as the Working Time Act (605/1996), the Annual Leave Act (162/2005) and the Employment Contracts Act (55/2001), set certain parameters for the content of collective agreements. As has already been said, the obligation to negotiate does not require either party to accept certain demands or make concessions. If company managers are considering changes that could be subject to mandatory negotiations, they should dispel doubts in favour of collective bargaining. The negotiation process between the committees representing the university and their employees, represented by the union, results in a collective agreement. If a new bargaining unit is formed, the parties will negotiate a “first collective agreement”.
At regular intervals, the parties, depending on the duration of the collective agreement, which can vary considerably, meet to negotiate collective agreements and negotiate amendments to the collective agreement. This amended agreement is commonly referred to as a “renewal collective agreement”. Collective bargaining is a negotiation process between employers and a group of workers that aims to conclude agreements to regulate wages, working conditions, benefits and other aspects of workers` compensation and rights for workers. Workers` interests are usually represented by representatives of a trade union to which the workers belong. Collective agreements obtained through these negotiations generally set wage scales, working hours, training, health and safety, overtime, complaint mechanisms and the right to participate in labour or company affairs.  Collective bargaining between unions and employers is a specialty in the field of general bargaining. However, the underlying legal and relational aspects make these areas distinct. General trade negotiations and procedural negotiations are not governed by legal provisions.
On the other hand, external laws require collective bargaining and regulate arbitration procedures, including a procedure for resolving malfunctions between the university and the Union, after all internal stages of the appeal procedure have been closed and the complaint has not been settled. Arbitration in the context of the remedy is called “rights arbitration” (i.e., defining the rights of the parties under the collective agreement). An arbitration procedure is similar to a judicial procedure in which a representative of the university and a representative of the Union file opening statements and put forward their arguments. As a rule, parties also call witnesses (for example. B the Grievor and other employees/managers) who answer questions from the university and union representatives. The arbitrator or arbitration body makes a decision that the parties must follow. Very informative! After scotus` Janus decision, things changed. However, it seems that, in some states, trade union membership has indeed increased! From what I have read, everything is due to a strong system that introduces new workers to their union representatives and explains the benefits of union membership. Even though non-members must be involved in all negotiations, this has not led to members withdrawing to become parasites! In fact, in some states, such as Washington State, union members are even higher than before Janus` decision! It`s worth googled through the Seattle deal with a coalition of unions to see how they can do so well after Janus.